Cheerful robots: unable or unwilling to see the social world as it truly exists. Minority status: visible minority groups, physical disability, or a mental disability, lesbian, gay, or bisexual face various forms of discrimination. Gender: patriarchy: men control the political and economic resources of society. Family structure: children"s well-being appears to be almost always associated with the household income of their families, higher income = better physical, social/emotional, cognitive, and behavioral well- being. Urban-rural differences: structural differences between small towns and large cities, access to health care, diversity in entertainment and cultural events, nature of growing up in each location is more subtle and contextual. Ibn khaldun (1332-1406) is the first social philosopher working from the sociological perspective: 1838: term sociology was coined by auguste comte(father of sociology) What they could see through the actions of spiritual or supernatural beings: 2nd stage: metaphysical stage ->understanding of truth and the relationship between mind and matter.