# Psychology 3130A/B Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Modus Ponens, Ibm System I, Deductive Reasoning

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22 Nov 2017
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## Document Summary

Extend the statement: (cid:862)joh(cid:374) is a k(cid:374)a(cid:448)e a(cid:374)d bill is a k(cid:374)a(cid:448)e(cid:863) In formal logic you might reduce content to make the form more logical: simpler to evaluate if the form is correct. Operators: or (also and, not, if, then, these allow you to draw conclusions and determine the validity of the conclusion, so logical structure determines if an argument is valid or not. What most of us want to believe is that the category of rich people that does not include all the doctor. A(cid:374)other (cid:272)ase (cid:449)here ri(cid:272)h people do(cid:374)"t alig(cid:374) (cid:449)ith do(cid:272)tor. There are at least two arrangements that allow for differential position. A valid argument guarantees the truth of an argument. If it does(cid:374)"t allo(cid:449) you to (cid:272)o(cid:374)(cid:272)lude o(cid:374)e thi(cid:374)g tha(cid:374) it is (cid:374)ot (cid:448)alid. Making a conclusion about a specific case. In general, positive terms are easier to evaluate than negative terms: who is shortest, becky.

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