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Answer: 1. option a 2. option a

Answer: 16. option a
Answer: 10. option a 11. option b

Question 411 pts

Cells in the epidermis of a plant leaf that control the opening for gas exchange are known as:

guard cells

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Question 421 pts

In plants, primary growth occurs at a growing center called a/an:

any meristem
cork cambium
lateral meristems
apical meristems

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Question 431 pts

Within the epidermis of leaves are _____________________ through which gases, such as carbon dioxide and oxygen pass.

vessel elements
root hairs

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Question 441 pts

The main difference between primary and secondary growth in plants is:

secondary growth does not occur in modern plants
primary growth occurs only during the summer and secondary growth occurs year round.
primary growth increases a plants size vertically and secondary growth increases the diameter of the plant.
primary growth happens in the first year and secondary growth happens in the second year.

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Question 451 pts

Flowers are made up of _________________ with the purpose of _________________.

petals; attracting pollinators
carpals; housing the egg cell
sepals; protection
all answers are correct

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Question 461 pts

All of the following are true of monocots except:

do not require oxygen to survive
parallel veins
one cotyledon
flower parts arranged in multiples of 3

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Question 471 pts

A distinction between prokaryotes and eukaryotes is:

prokaryotes lack a nucleus
eukaryotes lack a nucleus
prokaryotes are multicellular
eukaryotes are all multicellular

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Question 481 pts

Fungi are _________________. (choose the best answer)


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Question 491 pts

A mass of fungal hyphae is called a ____________________.

plant body

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Question 501 pts

Which of the following is not an example of a fungus?

Answer: 1. option 1

True of False. Please remember that all parts of the sentence must be True for the sentence to be deemed True (50 marks)

True or False?


Pichia stipitis is a yeast capable of making yeast from wood carbohydrates, and the nucleus of prokaryotes is the only gene sequence in the cell


Liquid nutrients are supplied to cells in a Petri dish, and a piece of skin has only one type of human cells


Stem cells will differentiate into many types of animal cells, and a piece of plant leaf can produce a whole plant (in the right conditions)


Viruses are obligate parasites, and all photosynthetic microbes are algae


Methanogens are archaebacteria, and yeasts are fungi


Microorganisms are prokaryotes, and all microorganisms are multicellular


Eukaryotes have a cell wall, and some prokaryotes have a cell wall


Eubacteria are eukaryotes, and the average size of viruses is 0.03-0.2 x 10-6m (0.03-0.2 µm)


The average size of a prokaryote is 0.5-3 x 10-6m, and cyanobacteria are eukaryotes called algae


Animal cells have no cell wall, and sterols are present in cell membranes of eukaryotes


Animal cells reproduce sexually, and eukaryotes by fission


Respiration and oxidative phosphorylation occur in mitochondria, and protein modifications (N-linked glycosylation) occur in the rough endoplasmic reticulum


Lipid synthesis in prokaryotes occur in the smooth ER, and ribosomes are the site of protein synthesis


Lysosomes, peroxisomes and glyoxysomes are only present in eukaryotes


N-linked glycosylation of proteins occurs in the rough ER, and O-linked glycosylation of proteins occurs in the Golgi body (complex; apparatus)


Some prokaryotes and all eukaryotes have vacuoles


Both photosynthetic bacteria and eukaryotes have chloroplasts to perform photosynthesis


Molds grown in submerged cultures can produce aggregates 10 times the size of the filamentous form growing n moist, solid surfaces


Fungi are yeasts, and all eukaryotes have vacuoles


Using a 20-nm pore size filter for a bacterial solution contaminated by bacteriophages, healthy bacteria will remain on the filter and the viruses will all be found in the filtrate


The glycosylation of proteins changes the protein structure, function and stability


Totipotent cells can differentiate to make a complete organism, and unipotent cells can only reproduce their own type of cells


In a batch fermentation, the product is recovered in small amounts along the fermentation


Cyanobacteria are eukaryotes capable of using light energy, and Agrobacterium tumefaciens infects plant roots


Gram-positive cells have strong cell walls containing peptidoglycans, and Gram-negative cells appear pink because they lost the violet stain (of the first step of the technique) during the second step

Answer: 1. True 2. True 3. False

Question 6

Diatoms and Brown Algae are both ______. But are grouped in a common clade because of the similarity of their ______ and this structure’s ____-like projections when present.

1. Heterotrophic – cell walls – hair-

Photosynthetic – flagella – hair-


Brown or golden – photosynthetic structures – amoeba-


autotrophic – body forms -- pennate or centric-

Question 7

Amoebozoans include both _________ and __________. The second group was once classified as __________. But are now placed in this clade because among other characteristics they are __________ (mechanism of nutrition) like amoeba.


Red algae and Green algae – plants autotrophic


Zygomycota and Ascomycota – fungi -- heterotrophic


Slime Molds and Oomycetes – fungi -- heterotrophic


Amoebae and Slime Molds (mycetozoans) – fungi and animals – phagotrophic.

Question 8

The clade Euglenozoa includes organisms such as Trypanosoma and ________ a common type of structure for locomotion.


Euglena with a flagellum


Paramecium with cilia


Plankton in fresh water or oceans


The vertebrae hosts of these organisms

Question 9

Table 1 on p. 63 outlines four Supergroups, of which one is the Alveolates. Identify two groups within the Alveolates and their shared common characteristics.


2. Formaniniferas and Radiolarians with a test shell


1.Ciliates and Dinoflagellates with alveoli sacs below the cell membrane


4. Euglena with flagella for locomotion


3. Red and Brown algae with air sacks for flotation

Question 10

The idea of evolutionary convergence among other ideas is demonstrated in this lab (and others) by _________


Characteristics of organisms in one clade are shared with organisms in other groups or clades.


The fact that some protist lineages are ancestors of multicellular organisms such as plants and animals.


Characteristics common to all Protists.


Methods of locomotion and nutritional strategies are unique to protists.

Answer: 6. option 1
Answers only, please

Answer: 9. option c

Answer: 38. option a 39. option d

1. Protists are found in which of the following habitats?

A) Marine B)Freshwater aquatic C)Within the body fluids of otherorganisms D)Damp soil E) A, B, C, & D

2. Which of the following modes of nutrition is used by protiststo fuel their metabolism?

A) autotrophic B) heterotrophic C) mixotrophic D)None of theabove E)All of the above

3. Contractile vacuoles help some protists cope with a(n)__________ environment.

A) hypotonic B) hypertonic C)isotonic D) acidic E) basic

4. The common characteristic of Alveolata is

A) a single, unique mitochondria B) sacs beneath the plasmamembrane C) silica covering D) funnel-shaped, contractile collar E)presence of a plasmodium

5. The tropical diseases such as African sleeping sickness iscaused by

A) foraminifera B) sporozoans C) phytomastigotes D) trypanosomesE) oomycetes

6. Members of the Euglenozoa move within their habitats with theaid of

A) tests B) pseudopodia C) cilia D) flagella E) pellicles

7. Ciliates with two very different types of nuclei within theircells, small micronuclei and larger macronuclei are

A) sporozoans B) protists C) oomycetes D) paramecium E)dinoflagellates

8. Organisms that are characterized by being unicellular,photosynthetic, and having double shells made of silica are knownas

A) dinoflagellates B) diatoms C) kelps D) eeuglenoid E)foraminifera

9. The clade __________ has a hairy and smooth flagella;includes the water molds, diatoms, golden & brown algae.

A) Alveolates B) Cercozoa & Radiolaria C) Euglenozoa D)Parabasala E)Stramenopila

10. The clade __________ has subsurface sacs; includesdinoflagellates, apicomplexans, and ciliates.

A) Alveolates B) Cercozoa & Radiolaria C) Euglenozoa D)Parabasala E)Stramenopila

Answer: 1. option d
Answer: 5. option b

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Answer: 11. option a 12. option c
Answer: 1. option c 2. option a
Answer: 1. option c
Answer:1. option 4
Answer:option 2
Answer: 37. option c
Answer: 37. option c
Biol 112
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Answer: 11. option a 12. option c
Answer: 1. option b
Answer: 1. option b
Answer: 18. option 1
Answer: 1. option a
Answer: 1. option b
Answer: 20. option c 21. option a
Answer: 11. option b
Answer: 6. option d 7. option a
Answer: option d

Answer: 1. option d 2. option b
Answer: 28. option b

Answer: 22. option a 23. option c

Answer: 22. option a 23. option c
Answer: option b
Answer:option b
Emergency please help

Answer: 28. option b 29. option a

Answer: 28. option b 29. option a
Answer: 1. option c
Answer: 1. option c
Answer:option c
Answer:option 1
Answer: 17. option 4

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