PSY222 Chapter Notes -Construct Validity, Statistical Hypothesis Testing, Internal Validity
A bivariate correlation or bivariate associationis an association that involves exactly two variables. To investigate associations, researchers need to measure the first variable and the second in the same group of people. Graphs and simple statistics describe the type of relationship the variables have with each other. An association claim describes the relationship between two measured variables, so it is relevant to ask about the construct validity of each variable. Causal claims are the boldest claims a scientist can make. Casual claims replace verb phrases such as related to, is associated with,or linked towith powerful verbs like makes, influences, or affects. The word experiment is common in everyday use. The term experiment specifically means that the researchers manipulated at least one variable and measured another. A variable that is controlled, such as when the researcher assigns participants to a particular level of the variable.