Chapter 6 the manager as negotiator: communicating and negotiating across cultures. Sender and receiver must share a vast amount of common information called grounding. Grounding information is based on each individual"s field of previous experience but is updated moment by moment during the communication process. Cultural field refers to the culturally based elements of a person"s background (e. g. education, values, attitudes) that influence communication. Language is symbolic code of communication consisting of a set of sounds with understood meanings and a set of rules for constructing messages. Suggest that the second language in use in international business is most often english. Use of second language has a number of implication for cross cultural communication. Creates cognitive strain takes more effort on the part of the second language-user, who could already be contending with other demands of communication or of the task at hand.