# Psychology 3130A/B Study Guide - Final Guide: Syllogism, Modus Tollens, Deductive Reasoning

## Document Summary

On a fictional island, all inhabitants are either knights (who always tell the truth) or knaves (who always lie) John and bill live on the island of knights and knaves. Question 1 john: we are both knaves : what knight/knave are john and bill. Solution to question 1: john: we are both knaves, extend the statement. John is a knave and bill is knave: if john were a knight, he would not be able to say that he was a knave since he would be lying. Therefore, the statement john is a knave must be true: but knaves lie and one statement is true, the other statement must be false. Therefore the statement bill is a knave must be false which leads to the conclusion that bill is a knight: the solution is that john is a knave and bill is a knight. Reasoning (deductive reasoning) going beyond the given information to comprehend a situation.