Mht should not be used for reducing risk of cvd: risk of breast cancer w/mht is associated with the use of progesterone therapy to estrogen. Must be accompanied by progesterone or tissue-selective estrogen complex for endometrial effect. Initiation of systemic estrogen therapy is limited to women younger than 60 or within 10 years of menopause onset. Menopause: menopause occurs in stages: perimenopause, menopause, post menopause (1 year. Induced menopuase experience with removal of ovaries, chemotherapy, pelvic radiation. Symptoms of induced menopause cause more severe symptoms: median age of onset is 51 years. Varies b/t 40-58: post menopause occurs during years beyond fmp w/stabilization of hormones & limited endocrine changes. Fsh & lh, produced by pituitary in response to gnrh, regulate ovarian function. Fsh & lh are regulated by negative feedback from estradiol & progesterone: anti-mullerian hormone (amh) is product of growing ovarian follicles which is independent of hypothalamic-pituitary axis.