ANAT 261 Lecture Notes - Aldehyde, Haematopoiesis, Holocrine

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The skin is made of 3 layers: the epidermis (packed cells), the dermis (fibers) and the hypodermis (fat cells and reticular fiber). Protection: blocks entry of foreign material and also resist penetration and abrasion. Thermoregulation: controls the transfer of heat across the body"s surface, i. e. it regulates the body temperature through sweat, vasodilation, etc. Sensory abilities: receptors for pains, heat, etc. Communication: releases visual (e. g. blushing) and pheremonal signals. Appendages: hair, nails, sebaceous glands, sweat glands. The epidermis is made of a stratified squamous keratinized epithelium. We will discuss exactly what this means in a bit, but there are 4 main layers to the epidermis, going from the bottom up: Stratum germinativum (or stratum basili) is right on top of the basement membrane and is a single layer of columnar cells: these are the stem cells of the epithelium, and will differentiate into the layers above it.

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